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            Frontiers Alzheimer Mind Memory Soul

            The topics of the above five books appear unrelated, but they are actually interconnected as indicated by arrows. At the center is "Frontiers in Microtubules" which focuses on the role of microtubules in long-range synchronization that generates brain waves. "The Origin of Consciousness" presents evidence for the "Alpha Hypothesis" which posits that consciousness emerges from global synchronization of alpha waves. At a more fundamental level, the alpha waves may create a gravitational geon, while the theta and gamma waves encode information about environment and memory that can be consciously perceived when the information (carried by gravitational waves) is bound by the gravitational geon.

            Tau, a microtubule-associated protein, is known to play a central role in . CRMP2, another microtubule-associated protein, has emerged as a key player in bipolar disorder. It could also play a crucial role in memory extinction and retrieval, as detailed in "Born to Forget, Die to Remember". The proposed mechanism can explain a near-death phenomena: life review. The gravitational geon created by a healthy brain is part of the "mind" which, at any moment, includes only a tiny fraction of our life experiences. By contrast, the gravitational geon created by a dying brain may be identified as the "

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            in Long-Range Synchronization

            The core assumption of long-range electromagnetic coupling is that the microtubules at the axon initial segment may act as receiving antennas, which requires them be stable, short and mobile. Such unconventional microtubules (known as "transportable microtubules") have been discovered several decades ago. Recently, α-synuclein has been demonstrated to be crucial for the assembly of transportable microtubules. This may explain why α-synuclein plays important roles not only in Parkinson's disease, but also in cognitive impairment. (Click here for details).


            (2019-05-21) A Novel Function of α-Synuclein at the Axon Initial Segment

            (2019-05-13) The Role of Parkin in Parkinson's Disease

            (2019-05-06) Long- vs. Short-range Coupling in the Beta Band

            (2019-04-27) The Role of Parkin+ SOM Cells in Parkinson's Disease

            (2019-04-22) The Role of SOM Cells in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

            (2019-04-17) Global Synchronization of Alpha Rhythms

            (2019-03-20) The Role of Actin Dynamics in Schizophrenia


            (2019-04-26) Neurodegeneration: The Sites of Onset Predicted by BDNF Cascade Hypothesis

            (2019-04-12) Neurodegeneration: From BDNF Deficiency to Hyperexcitability

            (2019-03-20) The CABT Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

            (2019-03-20) The Roles of 5-HT2A Receptors and mGluR2 in Schizophrenia

            (2019-02-13) Neural Correlates of Conscious Level and Content